The 28-year-old, who signed for the club in 2010 from Arsenal, will remain with the London outfit until the summer of 2014.
"I'm delighted to extend my stay with the club by a further year," Senderos told the club's official website. "I've thoroughly enjoyed my time at Fulham so far and I love playing for this club.
"I'm relishing playing first-team football and I'm confident that we can continue our recent good form and end the season strongly. A top-10 finish is certainly achievable."
Senderos is close to making 50 appearances for the Cottagers.