The Robins, who have been without a manager since Paul Buckle's dismissal a month-and-a-half ago, are in danger of dropping out of the Football League as they sit bottom of the table with seven games to go.
"I am looking forward to getting started," he told the club website. "I know the club, the staff and the players well and I am looking forward to getting into the swing of it and doing everything we can to succeed in our mission.
"It's all hands on deck for the last seven games."
Cheltenham, who won just one of the nine matches under Russell Milton's interim charge, next travel to York City on Good Friday.