The 23-year-old missed the whole of last season, having suffered cruciate ligament damage in April 2016 while on loan at NEC Nijmegen.
Kane will be working under Ernest Faber, who managed Kane last season at NEC, and the youngster admits that he is looking forward to working under him again.
The right-back is quoted by The Sun as saying: "I feel that the manager has a massive impact on my career and when he asked me to come I felt that I couldn't turn it down, it was another great opportunity to work with him.
"He called me last season, when I was back at home, I got the call and obviously I answered it and I was very happy and he said would I like to play under him again at FC Groningen, and I said 'of course'.
"He said 'it's a very good club', it's very different to NEC, I can see already it's a bigger club but you know I will take it as another club that I'm happy to join."
Kane, who has won the FA Youth Cup and the Under-21 league title with Chelsea, has previously had loan spells at Preston North End, Blackburn Rovers, Bristol City and Nottingham Forest while on the West London club's books.