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The visitors looked threatening early on and came within a whisker of taking the lead as Mauricio Pinilla missed a cross at the far post by fractions.
Gonzalo Bergessio then flashed a header over the bar as the home side stayed patient in their efforts to break down a stubborn Cagliari defence.
Rolando Maran was furious early in the second half as his side had a goal ruled out for offside.
Giuseppe Bellusci thought that he had given Catania the lead from close range, but his effort was ruled out.
Cagliari looked comfortable in the closing stages and stayed calm to secure a credible point.