The 34-year-old joins the Cumbrians on a short-term contract until the end of the season for an "undisclosed nominal fee".
Carlisle captured Campbell-Ryce's signature a minute before Wednesday's deadline and finally received confirmation that the paperwork had cleared with the EFL on Thursday afternoon.
The Jamaica international played under Carlisle manager Keith Curle while at Notts County.
"He is creative, instinctive, manipulative with the ball, can handle the ball, can be a link player and he can score goals," Curle told the official website.
"He's got a wealth of experience, and still has a hunger of the game which is pleasing, and he's got a desire to play for me again.
"We've consistently kept in contact since my time at Notts County, I've got admiration of how he plays the game and his attitude towards the game."
Campbell-Ryce has made 526 senior appearances in his career, scoring 47 goals.