The home side recovered from a batting collapse to take a narrow lead at the end of the first innings, before spending the final day trying to dismiss the tourists.
The captain, who claimed his first Test wicket in a cameo bowling appearance in the second innings, told BBC Sport: "We dragged ourselves out of a hole. In this game we had a poor session when we lost six wickets.
"It was an outstanding hundred from [Joe] Root and with [James Anderson] to have got 80-something. I didn't see it coming, but thank goodness he got it.
"We know we can put India under some pressure when we bat. We can score heavy runs once we get in, and we know we can put their top order under pressure. We just need a pitch with a bit of life in it."
The second Test gets underway at Lord's on Thursday.