The Czech, seeded eighth, beat the 2004 champion in straight sets in her first Wimbledon final.
The first set began evenly but a series of double faults from the Russian gave Kvitova the lead to win 6-3. She went on to serve for a 6-3, 6-4 victory in one hour and 25 minutes, taking her last game 40-0.
"Of course I was nervous in the final game but I hoped that I can win and I had to focus on each point, which was important," Kvitova told BBC Sport. "I think that was the best match I ever played."
The 21-year-old had reached last year’s semi-finals before being knocked out by Serena Williams.