The world number one is looking for a second consecutive major, having defeated Andy Murray in the Wimbledon final last month.
Since that result, Federer has reached the Olympic singles final and won the Cincinatti Open, and aims to add to the five US Open titles he has already won.
Meanwhile, Britain's Andy Murray has been named as the number three seed due to the absence of Rafael Nadal, who is still suffering from the injury that ruled him out of the Olympics.
Top 10 men's seeds
1. Roger Federer, Switzerland
2. Novak Djokovic, Serbia
3. Andy Murray, Great Britain
4. David Ferrer, Spain
5. Jo-Wilfred Tsonga, France
6. Tomas Berdych, Czech Republic
7. Juan Martin del Potro, Argentina
8. Janko Tipsarevic, Serbia
9. John Isner, United States
10. Juan Monaco, Argentina