The Red Dragons, beaten by England and Ireland in their last two outings, ran in five tries in Cardiff - two of those by Northampton Saints wing George North.
Italy also registered a try in either half of the one-sided affair, but their losing run now spans 16 matches and the wooden spoon awaits, regardless of the score in next weekend's home clash with Scotland.
The margin of victory for Wales lifts them into second place in the Six Nations standings, though Ireland have already been crowned champions with one game left to play.
Wales had a second through North just a couple of minutes later, marking his return to the field in style after Owen Watkin intercepted the ball.
Italy did manage to hit back almost instantly in an explosive opening to the match, however, with Matteo Minozzi spiralling his way through and diving over the line.
The Azzurri, who had conceded 18 tries in this year's championship prior to today, saw their hopes of drawing level dented when Anscombe kicked over for the third time, this time with an easy penalty down the middle.
Patchell was involved again soon after, too, playing a big part in Justin Tipuric's try from the wing and, although Mattia Bellini touched down in the corner for Italy late on, it was Wales who were left smiling come full time.