The 19-year-old recently signed a five-year deal with the Primera Division champions after leaving Argentine outfit San Lorenzo.
However, a problem with the player's heart was detected during the medical, with Atletico confirming that their latest signing would indeed require an operation.
According to Marca, the surgery will take place in Miami next Wednesday.
"Until the operation is carried out, it will be impossible to know the recovery period," Atletico president Enrique Cerezo told reporters.
"We must be thankful of the transfer, because this condition, which is common in a lot of players, was detected."
Correa is widely regarded as one of the best youngsters in Argentina.