McIlroy shot three double bogeys in the difficult conditions to end the day with a 10-over-par 80, while Spieth (78), Woods (78) and Mickelson (77) also had rounds to forget.
The high-profile quartet were by no means alone, though; there were 200 double bogeys or worse on day one, compared to 212 for the entire tournament last year, and the combined score of the whole field came in at more than 1,000 over par.
Justin Rose and Henrik Stenson are among a group of six players on one-over par, but other big names struggled to tame the conditions on Long Island.
Woods began his round with a triple-bogey and a bogey, but steadied the ship to limit the damage to eight-over at the end of play.
US OPEN LEADERBOARD AFTER ROUND ONE
1. Scott Piercy (-1) =. Ian Poulter (-1) =. Russell Henley (-1) =. Dustin Johnson (-1) 5. Jason Dufner (E)