Jose Maria Olazabal named the duo in his team due to Poulter's previous Ryder Cup success and Colsaert's recent good form.
Poulter, who is named in his fourth Ryder Cup team, finished as the highest points scorer for either side in the 2008 defeat at Valhalla and scored three out of four points at Celtic Manor two years later.
Colsaerts, meanwhile, becomes the only rookie on this year's European Ryder Cup team, having just missed out on an automatic qualifying place with a 19th-place finish in Gleneagles at the weekend.
There was disappointment for Padraig Harrington, however, who misses his first Ryder Cup since 1999.
Europe will look to defend their crown against the United States at Medinah, Chicago, starting on September 28.
Europe's Ryder Cup team: Rory McIlroy, Justin Rose, Graeme McDowell, Paul Lawrie, Francesco Molinari, Luke Donald, Lee Westwood, Sergio Garcia, Peter Hanson, Martin Kaymer, Ian Poulter, Nicolas Colsaerts