The 21-year-old had joined the League One outfit on a three-month deal but has returned to Molineux because of an ankle problem.
Orient were unbeaten in the three matches in which Price featured and interim boss Kevin Nugent told reporters: "Losing Jack is a big blow and the injuries certainly aren't going for us at the moment. Jack's been a great addition – he was having a really good game as well at Doncaster.
"When he came in I knew what he was capable of in terms of keeping the game ticking over and he has good defensive instincts as well, so it's disappointing."
Price, who made 26 appearances for Wolves last season but has fallen down the pecking order since their promotion to the Championship, spent the first two months of the season on loan at Yeovil Town.