The hosts opened the scoring after just two minutes played in the Scottish Premiership clash courtesy of a Dedryck Boyata error.
The Hoops soon upped their game and were all square once again just before half time through star striker Moussa Dembele.
Celtic then suffered a blow in the shape of falling a man behind, Jozo Simunovic receiving a red card for an elbow on Morelos just before the hour mark.
However, the hosts would go on to find a winner despite their numerical disadvantage as Dembele set up Odsonne Edouard, who then skinned Goss and curled home into the far corner from 16 yards.
Celtic, who have secured a fourth consecutive win at Ibrox for the first time since 1909, go nine points clear of second-placed Rangers at the top of the Premiership table.
RANGERS (4-2-3-1): Foderingham; Tavernier, Alves, Bates (Cardoso 15'), John; Docherty, Goss (Cummings 74'); Murphy, Windass, Candeias; Morelos
CELTIC (4-2-3-1): Bain; Ajer, Boyata, Simunovic, Tierney; Brown, Ntcham; Forrest (Edouard 67'), Rogic (Hendry 60'), McGregor; Dembele (Armstrong 86')