The 24-year-old could make his debut for the Cumbrians at Brentford this afternoon.
"Troy is a big defender who has experience at this level," Carlisle manager Greg Abbott told the club's official website.
"He's tough and he can play a bit of football, and he joins us at a time when we need a bit of cover in that area.
"He's another who is versatile and, as with all moves like this, it's one which should benefit all parties concerned."
Archibald-Henville, who is a product of Tottenham Hotspur's youth system, has made just eight appearances for Swindon since signing from Exeter City for an initial fee of £275,000 last summer.