The Red Devils booked their place in the last eight of the tournament following a 2-1 win against the USA in Salvador.
Should Belgium win their next match, then they could face the Netherlands in the semi-finals, but Courtois has said that his team are not planning that far ahead.
"Argentina are a really good side, it will be very difficult game," he told BBC Sport. "We are not thinking about the semi-finals. We will just play that game and hopefully we can all give 110%."
Belgium will be making their first appearance in the quarter-finals of the World Cup in 28 years this Saturday.