© PA Photos
Despite Poland having more possession during the opening exchanges of the first half, neither side was able to create a clear goalscoring opportunity.
Poland's Kamil Grosicki saw a scuffed shot cleared by Ashley Cole, while Jermain Defoe's route to goal was blocked by a sliding challenge from centre-back Jakub Wawrzyniak in what were the only meaningful sights of goal.
However, with 31 minutes played England went in front. Captain Steven Gerrard sent over a corner which was met by Rooney, who found the net with a combination of his head and shoulder.
Grosicki went close to drawing the home side level in the closing stages of the half, but he volleyed just wide of the target after Robert Lewandowski had chipped him through on goal.
England then went on to create two chances in quick succession, neither of which they were able to convert. First Defoe missed the target from close range following a cross from Gerrard with 64 minutes played, before Rooney lifted a shot over the bar after Defoe's replacement Danny Welbeck had cut the ball back for his Manchester United teammate.
Rooney's failure to double his nation's lead was punished in the 70th minute when Poland's Glik beat Hart to a Obraniak corner and the left-back headed in the ball into an unguarded net.
Both teams went forward in search of a winning goal, but neither were able to claim the three points.
The point has seen England remain top of Group H on eight points from four matches, with the Poles third on five points.