The young defender received his marching orders 20 minutes from time in the contest at Stamford Bridge but the hosts were unable to make numerical advantage count and the game ended as a goalless draw.
The Foxes have now moved onto 31 points in the Premier League as a result, but Puel thinks that they could have walked away with two more were it not for the "harsh" sending-off.
"They have had some chances in the first half, but we deserved the result in the end, because we had a lot of chances in the game," he told Match of the Day. "We lost the two points. It was a good game for us, we showed a lot of quality, we played well, but if it were 11 v 11 I think we would have got the win.
"We played a good game, sometimes a fantastic game with our quality. Chelsea's players looked a little tired, but our play had good passes and good shifts between play, it was amazing to see us show this quality against Chelsea. We played against a great team, and in the end it's a little feeling of disappointment.
"I think [Chilwell's red was] harsh, it's harsh. The two yellow cards - it is not balanced. It's difficult to accept, but the point makes it a little bit okay."
Next up for Puel's charges is an FA Cup replay with Fleetwood Town at the King Power on Tuesday night, ahead of a home tie with Watford in the league next weekend.