The Durham all-rounder had been under consideration for the recent two-Test series with Sri Lanka, but the selectors eventually decided that he should play more County Championship cricket to prove his fitness following a hand injury.
Having confirmed his form and fitness with the bat and ball over the last couple of weeks, the 23-year-old has now been reinstated into the 13-man party.
"The selectors would like to congratulate all the players selected in the squad for the 1st Investec Test against India and in particular Ben Stokes who returns to the squad having worked hard to regain his fitness following an injury this winter," said national selector James Whitaker.
Chris Woakes has also retained his place, despite speculation that he could make way for Stokes.
England squad to face India at Trent Bridge
Alastair Cook (C), Moeen Ali, James Anderson, Gary Ballance, Ian Bell, Stuart Broad, Chris Jordan, Liam Plunkett, Matt Prior, Sam Robson, Joe Root, Ben Stokes, Chris Woakes