The 23-year-old completed his move to the Red Rose county on Monday after choosing to leave home county Somerset at the end of last season.
Buttler, who has played 19 one-day matches and 25 Twenty20 internationals for England, is yet to make his Test debut.
"I'm an ambitious person and I want to play Test cricket. That's my ultimate aim," he told BBC North West Tonight.
"Realistically, I know I'm a little way off that, but that's why I'm here. I feel this club can aid me in doing that and getting me to my ultimate goals."
Lancashire finished top of County Championship Division Two last season.