The 24-year-old Victorian's inclusion appears to have signalled the end of Haddin's 43-Test career.
"Matthew and Brad both went to the West Indies, Matthew as our preferred ODI and T20 player and Brad as our incumbent and preferred Test match keeper," said selector John Inverarity.
"As is widely known, Brad returned to Australia early in the tour due to family circumstances and as a consequence Matthew was our Test keeper for the three Test matches.
"He kept and batted very well and made a match-defining brilliant century in the second innings of the third and final Test against West Indies.
"Since then he has played and gained valuable experience in England, the United Arab Emirates and Sri Lanka. As a young player, getting better by the month, he is thoroughly deserving of his retention."
Wade was the only Australian to register a century during the West Indies series.
Australia team for the first Test against South Africa (starting November 9): Michael Clarke (captain), Shane Watson, Ed Cowan, Ben Hilfenhaus, Mike Hussey, Nathan Lyon, James Pattinson, Ricky Ponting, Peter Siddle, Mitchell Starc, Matthew Wade, David Warner