It will be the third occasion in which 24-year-old Khan has fought Stateside, having recently defeated Zab Judah in Las Vegas.
Peterson has won all but two of his 31 fights during his career, with his only loss coming against Timothy Bradley two years ago.
The 27-year-old was born in Washington DC but Khan is confident of emerging victorious in Peterson's "back yard".
"I am looking forward to returning to the United States to face a worthy challenger like Lamont Peterson," said Bolton-born Khan.
"I always said I wanted to be active and a true world champion and I will prove it on December 10. I know Lamont is a strong contender but it doesn't matter that I'm fighting him in his back yard, I'm coming in as champion and will leave as champion."
The fight will take place on Saturday, December 10.