The 29-year-old was the only member of the English team to match his success from the last Games in Delhi after defending champion Andy Turner crashed out in the first round and 2010 bronze medallist Lawrence Clarke finished last in the final.
Sharman was pipped to the post by Jamaica's Andrew Riley by just four one-hundredths of a second and believes that hitting one of the hurdles cost him the top prize.
"I made a big mistake by hitting [the hurdle] with my trail leg and that cost me," he told Sports Mole afterwards. "But no disrespect to the winner, he ran a great race."
Asked if his triumph tonight made up for missing out on participating at London 2012, he replied: "No no, not really. London is in the past. It's gone. It's all about looking forward and looking at the best I can do."
The podium was completed by Shane Brathwaite of Barbados.