The 24-year-old will miss his side's games against the New England Patriots, the Buffalo Bills, the Kansas City Chiefs and the Oakland Raiders as a result of the infraction.
A statement on the club's official website said: "Dion Jordan of the Miami Dolphins has been suspended without pay for the first four games of the 2014 regular season for violating the NFL policy on performance-enhancing substances.
"Jordan will be eligible to return to the Dolphins' active roster on Monday, September 29 following the team's September 28 game against the Oakland Raiders. Jordan is eligible to participate in all off-season and pre-season practices and games."
Jordan recorded 26 tackles and two sacks in the 2013 season after being drafted third overall in the 2013 Draft by the club.