Welbeck was caught doing 82mph in a 50mph zone, but despite being more than 30mph over the speed limit, the striker avoided a driving ban.
Manchester magistrates heard that Welbeck initially denied the charge and refused to pay an on-the-spot fine.
His legal representative Nick Freeman told the court that Welbeck would have paid the fine if he had not believed that he was required to take his licence, which Welbeck claimed was missing, to a police station.
The 21-year-old was fined £65 plus £350 costs, while he was told to pay a £15 surcharge.
Welbeck did not attend the court hearing.