The result means the German two-time world champion failed to make it to the top-10 shootout for the first time in 43 races.
Vettel said afterwards: "It's always easy to say this and that now, but I was happy with the car yesterday and that's why I decided to stay as we were.
"I was happy with the laps I had in qualifying. There were no mistakes, but they weren't quick enough. It's as easy as that.
"Obviously I'm not happy. As I said, I was pretty happy with the laps I had in Q2, but they weren't quick enough. We have to start the race from P11 and see what we can do tomorrow. Surely it makes it a bit harder, but not impossible to do a good race."