The event, which sees participants awarded a final score judged on the weight they lift compared to their bodyweight, only had four competitors and Sugden saw off competition from Kenya's Joyce Njuguna and Nerys Pearce of Wales to claim silver.
Sugden - who competed for Team GB in wheelchair basketball at the 2008 and 2012 Olympics - produced a best lift of 103kg to earn an overall score of 89.2 - just 0.2 above Njuguna, who missed out on a bronze medal due to only four women taking part.
The lighter Kenyan's best lift of 101kg saw her fall agonisingly short on the points system, but there was never any doubt as to where the gold medal would end up as Nigeria won their third of the day in the sport.
Ndidi Nwosu was the favourite going into the contest, and sure enough the Olympic champion - more than 10kg lighter than Sugden - produced a best lift of 120kg to end with a score of 110.4.
Nigeria have now won all 13 of the gold medals that have ever been awarded in the sport since it was introduced to the Commonwealth Games.