The Welsh captain suffered a calf injury and will be replaced by Andy Powell at number eight against the Pumas.
Jones had been set to equal Ieuan Evans's 28 appearances as Wales captain but coach Warren Gatland did not want to risk the fitness of the Ospreys forward this weekend.
"We have withdrawn him as a precaution and told him we are happy with what he has done so far in terms of making a claim for RWC selection," said Gatland.
"The 30-man squad will be named at the Millennium Stadium on Monday and, without getting ahead of ourselves, we have told him how important he is to us."
Wales begin their World Cup campaign in New Zealand with a match against defending champions South Africa in Wellington on Sunday, September 11.