The 26-year-old skippered England during last season's Six Nations and also led them to South Africa.
The flanker joined Harlequins in 2005 and has since made 145 appearances for the club. He made his debut for England in 2009 and has since emerged into one of Stuart Lancaster's key players.
Lancaster told reporters: "It was great to be able to sit down with him on Sunday and offer him the position. He's been great for us since we met in Leeds and I had no hesitation in naming him England captain."
Robshaw will lead his country against Fiji, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.