The 28-year-old has not played for the Vikings this season because of knee and neck problems.
"Due to the injuries I've suffered over the past few seasons, my family and I have decided that now is the time to retire from the game," Pickersgill is quoted as saying by BBC Sport. "It's now time for me to move on and begin a new chapter in my life.
"I would like to wish Widnes Vikings all the best for the future and hopefully silverware isn't too far away."
Pickersgill joined Widnes from Warrington Wolves in 2010 following a brief loan spell at the Select Security Stadium.