The wing-half played twice for the Three Lions and was part of the squad for the 1962 World Cup in Chile.
A statement on the Magpies' website read: "Former wing-half Stan Anderson, who had the distinction of captaining Newcastle United, Sunderland and Middlesbrough, has sadly passed away. He was 85.
"Stan, who is remembered fondly on Tyneside, Wearside and Teesside, sadly passed away on Sunday, June 10 2018.
"Our deepest condolences go to Stan's family and his many friends both in and out of football."
Anderson also had spells in charge at Boro, AEK Athens, Queens Park Rangers, Doncaster Rovers and Bolton Wanderers.