The 24-year-old midfielder, who can also play at centre-back, has made six international appearances and was part of the NI squad that went to Euro 2016.
McCullough has made 112 appearances for Rovers since joining in 2013 but has found himself down the pecking order at the Keepmoat Stadium since the arrival of new boss Grant McCann.
"We're delighted to bring Luke into the group," Tranmere manager Micky Mellon told the official club website.
"We needed to bring up the numbers in the squad and we feel that Luke has the quality that we want to add to the squad.
"He has experience at international level and the league above as well as being a versatile option in a couple of positions.
"We would like to thank Grant McCann and Doncaster Rovers for allowing Luke to join us until January."
McCullough started his career at Manchester United in 2010 as a youth player.