The 37-year-old, who now plies his trade for Liverpool after joining in a £37m summer switch from Roma, netted a 95th-minute penalty to help his national side to a 2-1 win over Congo on Sunday evening.
Salah had earlier opened the scoring in the qualifying clash, before seeing his goal cancelled out by Arnold Bouka Moutou to set up the dramatic conclusion.
On the back of a famous night for Egyptian football, ex-Ivory Coast international Drogba took to Twitter to praise "real leader" Salah.
"Proud of my brother @22mosalah u became a real leader of a Nation reminds me of Cote d'Ivoire in 2006 #thebeautifulgame #russia2018," he wrote.
Drogba was briefly a teammate of Salah's at Stamford Bridge, but the wideman failed to settle and was twice loaned out before being sold on.