The Normandy club threatened an early breakthrough at the Stade Michel D'Ornano as Julien Feret's cross found Jonathan Delaplace on the edge of the Toulouse area, only for the midfielder to pull his shot wide of Mauro Goicoechea's goal.
The Dane was causing problems for Stade's defence moments later as he fired another effort straight at the Caen keeper.
Caen finished the first half strongly, with Delaplace bringing a stop out of Goicoechea before Andy Delort headed wide from close range.
The home side went close again on 66 minutes as Goicoechea needed to keep out Vincent Bessat's shot, but Caen were able to breakthrough soon after.
Caen's only goal came when Feret's free kick was powered into the bottom corner of the Toulouse net with just over 20 minutes remaining.