Both sides had positive periods during an end-to-end first half, but neither could create too much of note in terms of clear opportunities.
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It was the home team that took the lead after 21 minutes, however, when Cheick Diabate converted from the penalty spot.
Herve Bazile was on target for the visitors late in the first period, but his effort was saved, with Bordeaux entering the break ahead.
Mathieu Duhamel came close to equalising for the away side after 70 minutes, but his header was high of the crossbar. Seven minutes later, however, Caen were level when Julien Feret set up Bazile to equalise.
Bazile had a golden chance to win it late on, but could not find the bottom corner from inside the box.
The result has left Bordeaux in third spot in the table, while Caen have moved one place into 18th.