Buttler was keeping wicket during a tense final day in Cape Town when he launched a series of expletives at batsman Philander, seemingly angered by the batsman's decision not to move out of the way of a throw.
Here, the PA news agency looks at five sledging incidents that have gone down in cricket folklore.
Mark Waugh & James Ormond
Australia batsman Waugh was unimpressed when England bowler Ormond (career batting average 15.16) came out to bat in the final Oval Test of the 2001 Ashes. Waugh, brother of Australia captain Steve, let rip at slip: "Mate, what are you doing here? There's no way you're good enough to play for England." To which Ormond replied: "Maybe not, but at least I'm the best player in my family."
Andrew Flintoff & Tino Best
Flintoff's chirping from slip did for paceman Best on the West Indies' 2004 tour of England. The all-rounder told Best to "mind the windows" as he prepared to face Ashley Giles' off-spin. Best charged out of his crease trying to smash the ball out of Lord's, but he missed and was stumped by Geraint Jones. Cue Best trudging off and Flintoff almost collapsing in a fit of giggles. Fair play to Best, though, who later named his book 'Mind the Windows'.
Viv Richards & Greg Thomas
Glamorgan's England fast bowler Greg Thomas had built up a bit of pace on a bouncy Taunton track to beat Somerset batsman Vivian Richards a few times in an over. "Hey Viv, it's red, it's round and it's fast. Now trying playing it!" Thomas quipped. The great West Indian responded by smashing the next ball out of the ground and saying to Thomas: "You know what it looks like, now go and find it."
Merv Hughes & Javed Miandad
Hughes was never one to hold back in the middle and Pakistan batsman Javed Miandad was on the end of a cutting quip at Adelaide in 1991. Miandad called Hughes a "fat bus conductor" after the well-built bowler had beaten him a few times and glared at him. "It was team policy not to target him verbally," Hughes said later. But he could not resist when he dismissed Miandad as he ran past him, saying: "Tickets please."
Daryll Cullinan & Shane Warne
South Africa batsman Cullinan suffered nightmares against Shane Warne, regularly dismissed by the brilliant Australia leg-spinner. Cullinan walked out to the middle in 1997 having not faced him in a while and Warne was keen to strike a psychological advantage. "I've been waiting four years for this," Warne told him. Warne was not in the best shape at the time and Cullinan instantly replied: "Looks like you've spent it eating!"