The fight will take place at the Motorpoint Arena in Cardiff, the same location as his last defence against American Tommy Karpency.
"I had a brilliant reception at the Motorpoint Arena in February, which was my first fight in Wales for four years," said the unbeaten Welshman.
"The fans came out to support me so it's great to return for another big fight night in the capital."
33-year-old Uzelkov is nicknamed 'Steel Power' and has competed at world level for a number of years, losing to WBA champion Beibut Shumenov in 2010.
Cleverly, who holds the WBO version of the title, was rumoured to be fighting either Shumenov or Bernard Hopkins.
His promoter Frank Warren also claimed to have offered the fight to super-middleweight champion Carl Froch, as well as suggesting a rematch with Tony Bellew, who lost a close decision against Cleverly in 2011.
"It's been frustrating," said Warren. "We had Hopkins lined up but he pulled out and then Shumenov didn't want to come over to the UK, plus Froch and Bellew didn't want to know.
"While we look to make those fights, Cleverly has got to keep busy. He hasn't fought since February and Uzelkov will provide a tough defence."
The fight will take place at Cardiff's Motorpoint Arena on October 27.