The visitors edged a tight first quarter that saw both sides struggle on offence, with the only points coming via the boot of Billy Cundiff, who converted a 40-yard field goal.
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Cundiff added another kick in the second quarter, but it was the Jaguars who went into the break with a slender lead as Allen Robinson did brilliantly to stay on his feet having collected a Blake Bortles pass before racing in for a 31-yard score.
Jacksonville then extended their advantage to four with 10 minutes remaining of the third quarter, Josh Scobee slotting over a 30-yard kick.
The Jaguars edged ever closer to their elusive first victory of the campaign when Denard Robinson picked up their second touchdown of the evening, rushing in from eight yards with just under six minutes remaining of the match.
The result was well and truly put to bed shortly afterwards as Storm Johnson made it into the endzone for a three-yard score to increase his side's lead to an unassailable 18.
That was how it remained as the Jaguars ended a six-match losing streak in 2014, while the Browns are now 3-3 for the season.