A general meeting attended by 9,400 members on Saturday voted overwhelmingly by 71% for the 46-year-old's resignation.
De Carvalho, who was elected in 2013 and re-elected in 2017, has been blamed for the negative relationship with the squad players which culminated in an assault by fans at the training ground in May.
Writing on Facebook, De Carvalho called the result "one of the greatest frauds ever seen" and claimed that it was perpetuated by "a bunch of cretins who rigged the vote", but he added that he would obey it.
"For me this is over. I could challenge this general meeting for all the illegalities committed here. But I won't... What ingratitude and injustice," De Carvalho added.
Sporting will be led by a provisional management committee until a new presidential election on September 8.