The 24-year-old was diagnosed with the illness in December and underwent surgery in January, followed by an intensive course of chemotherapy.
Edwards, who has not played for the Pilgrims since January 13, tweeted on Tuesday with the news that he was given the all-clear.
The centre-back wrote: "When you get the green light and given the all clear long hard few months but I said we'd beat it and we have!
"It may be able to knock us down but it definitely can't keep us down!!! Thanks everyone for the support all the way through this dark time!"
Edwards made 30 appearances for the Devon club this season before having surgery in January.