The Catalan outfit entered the match having not won away to Sociedad in the league since 2007 and that run continued after an impressive performance from the Basque outfit, who are now unbeaten in their last five in Spain's top flight and have indeed returned to fifth position ahead of Villarreal.
Unsurprisingly, Sociedad flew out of the blocks and had a half-chance to make the breakthrough inside two minutes, but David Zurutuza could only head straight at Marc-Andre ter Stegen from inside the Barcelona box.
Clear opportunities were few and far between in the early exchanges, but the opening 15 minutes belonged to Sociedad as Yuri Berchiche and Carlos Martinez continued to cause problems with dangerous crosses from wide positions.
A delivery from Willian Jose set up a half-chance for Xabi Prieto as Sociedad continued to press, although the experienced midfielder's header lacked power and Ter Stegen was able to drop to his knees and collect.
Sociedad came even closer in the 18th minute when a Yuri cross landed on the head of Prieto, who had fended off the attention of Jordi Alba, but the Spaniard angled his effort wide of the far post, moments before Carlos Vela missed the target after taking advantage of some more lacklustre defending from Barcelona.
Such was Sociedad's confidence, each member of their back four was prepared to break forward and Ter Stegen had to keep out a stinging effort from Inigo Martinez inside what was a brilliant 25 minutes for the Basque outfit.
The hosts continued to look the more likely as the first period drew to a close, with Mikel Oyarzabal volleying just wide of the post in the 35th minute as Barcelona's struggles showed no sign of drawing to a close.
The away side's best opportunity of the first half fell to Luis Suarez five minutes before the interval, but the Uruguay international comfortably missed the post as Barcelona failed to register a shot on target in the opening half of action.
Barcelona's first shot on target came in the 51st minute when Neymar bent a free kick towards the top corner, but Geronimo Rulli was across to make the save as it remained goalless after a low-key start to the second period.
Sociedad finally made the breakthrough in the 53rd minute, however, when Willian Jose's header found a route past Pique on the goal-line after Ter Stegen had made a smart save to keep out Vela's initial effort from close range.
Barcelona were level six minutes later though when Neymar raced clear down the left before delivering a low cross in to Messi, and the Argentine took one touch before smashing his effort into the bottom corner for 1-1.
Sociedad responded impressively to conceding, but Barcelona remained a threat down the other end and Neymar was at the forefront of the away side's improvement as he continued to test Carlos Martinez down Sociedad's right side.
The home side came within a couple of inches of regaining the lead in the 75th minute when Vela bent a beautiful effort towards the top corner, but the ball smashed against the crossbar and Juanmi was adjudged to have been offside when he turned home from close range, which proved to be an incorrect call.
Denis Suarez and Javier Mascherano had half-chances for Barcelona 10 minutes from time, but Sociedad rode their luck on both occasions before Vela again hit the woodwork down the other end with a low strike.
Esteban Granero also came close for the Basque hosts on two separate occasions late on, but the score finished level as Barcelona dropped more points ahead of next weekend's El Clasico at Camp Nou.