The 36-year-old will feature in upcoming LV=County Championship encounters against Yorkshire and Sussex, but will then link up with his international colleagues for their upcoming one-day series with England.
Speaking about his second stint in county cricket, the left-hander told the club's official website: "I'm really looking forward to returning to county cricket with Durham and I'm immensely grateful for the opportunity.
"I actually made my debut for Warwickshire against Durham back in 2007. I scored a few runs that day so I'm hoping to make amends this time around."
Meanwhile, head coach Jon Lewis added: "I said that if we could pull off this signing it would be a big bonus and it is. To attract a player of Kumar Sangakkara's quality to Durham is fantastic and I've been really impressed by his eagerness to join us."
"In his short stay, I'm sure he'll be a big asset - not just with his performances, but with the example he will show our crop of fine young cricketers."
Sangakkara has scored 11,151 runs during his 122 Test matches at an average of 58.07.