The 40-year-old, who is regarded as the greatest batsman in the sport, currently sits on 198 Test matches and will close the curtain on his career after two Tests against the West Indies next month.
A statement from Tendulkar via the Board of Control for Cricket in India said: "All my life, I have had a dream of playing cricket for India. I have been living this dream every day for the last 24 years.
"It's hard for me to imagine a life without playing cricket because it's all I have ever done since I was 11 years old. It's been a huge honour to have represented my country and played all over the world. I look forward to playing my 200th Test Match on home soil, as I call it a day.
"I thank the BCCI for everything over the years and for permitting me to move on when my heart feels it's time! I thank my family for their patience and understanding. Most of all, I thank my fans and well-wishers who through their prayers and wishes have given me the strength to go out and perform at my best."
Tendulkar currently sits at the top of the global standings on 15,837 runs in Test matches, with a record of scoring 51 centuries and 67 half-centuries during his career. The Indian batsman retired from one-day international cricket in May.