A sixth Serie A win on the spin lifts Juventus two points clear at the league summit, though Napoli can regain top spot if they beat Bologna on Sunday.
Without a number of star names, including the not-yet-fit Gianluigi Buffon, Juve probed away with little reward during the first half of the contest.
Up the other end stand-in keeper Wojciech Szczesny blocked Cacciatore's header, before a bizarre incident that saw the full-back seemingly dismissed for a gesture towards the referee.
The inevitable soon happened as Juventus found a way through, with Khedira drilling the ball home from 12 yards after Federico Bernardeschi pulled the ball back into a dangerous zone.
Chievo, now without a win in this fixture in 17 attempts since 2009, managed to trouble their opponents and Ivan Radovanovic may have found a way through if not for the quick reaction of Szczesny to race off his line.
Juve killed things off two minutes from time, however, as Higuain got away from his marker to convert Costa's cross with his head and seal the points.
CHIEVO (4-4-1-1): Sorrentino; Cacciatore, Dainelli, Tomovic (Gamberini 52'), Bani; Bastien, Radovanovic, Hetemaj, Jaroszynski; Birsa (Meggiorini 78'); Pucciarelli (Depaoli 46')
JUVENTUS (4-3-3): Szczesny; De Sciglio, Barzagli, Benatia, Asamoah (Lichtsteiner 71'); Khedira, Pjanic, Sturaro (Bernardeschi 52'); Douglas Costa, Higuain (Bentancur 89'), Mandzukic