The 22-year-old Dutchman spent the whole of last season in his homeland after playing there for the second half of the 2011-12 campaign.
"Patrick van Aanholt will play again next season at Vitesse," read a statement on Vitesse's official website.
"The 22-year-old defender is hired for a season from Chelsea football club. Van Aanholt begins his third season in Arnhem."
The youngster signed his first professional deal with the Blues in 2009 following two years in their youth system.