Kompany had been seen as a doubt for the tournament when he limped off the field at the weekend, but the centre-back has been included in Roberto Martinez's 23-man squad.
There is no place in the final selection for Crystal Palace forward Christian Benteke, however, with Chelsea's Michy Batshuayi, who ended the season on loan at Borussia Dortmund, chosen in the final third.
Tottenham Hotspur trio Jan Vertonghen, Mousa Dembele and Toby Alderweireld all make it, while West Bromwich Albion's Nacer Chadli is included alongside former Manchester United youngster Adnan Januzaj.
Belgium will open their World Cup campaign against Panama on June 18, before facing Tunisia and England.
Goalkeepers: Koen Casteels, Thibaut Courtois, Simon Mignolet
Defenders: Toby Alderweireld, Dedryck Boyata, Vincent Kompany, Thomas Meunier, Thomas Vermaelen, Jan Vertonghen
Midfielders: Yannick Carrasco, Nacer Chadli, Leander Dendoncker, Kevin de Bruyne, Mousa Dembele, Marouane Fellaini, Eden Hazard, Thorgan Hazard, Adnan Januzaj, Youri Tielemans, Axel Witsel
Forwards: Michy Batshuayi, Dries Mertens, Romelu Lukaku