Andre Schurrle rattled the bar in the 34th minute before Dusseldorf were level five minutes later.
Straight up the other end from kickoff, Schurrle found the target this time and found the corner with his strike to put Leverkusen back in front.
In the 66th minute Simon Rolfes was shown a straight red card, however it did not seem to matter as just a minute later Gonzalo Castro netted the hosts' third.
Dusseldorf pressed hard and were given a lifeline four minutes from time through Adam Bodzek's goal to set up a dramatic finish.
However Gerrit Wegkamp only managed to put a shot wide in the last minute as time ran out for Dusseldorf.