The 33-year-old underwent the operation after having a tumour removed from his liver in 2011, but despite returning to light training, he has insisted that he does not want to rush his recovery period.
Abidal said: "I'm tired, but happy. I have been thinking about kicking the ball again for a long time. Today is the first day.
"I want to rejoin the group soon but without rushing things."
No date has been announced as to when Abidal is expected to return to the Barcelona first team.