The 22-year-old arrives at the Crown Ground as a free agent following his release by Wigan at the end of last season.
Buxton spent part of the 2013-14 campaign on loan at Accrington.
"There were a lot of other teams looking at him but he liked what he saw here last season," manager James Beattie told the club's official website.
"He knows it is a great club for him to showcase his skills. Adam is a talented young player, he is quiet off the pitch but tough on it. He is a great addition for us."
Accrington get their League Two campaign off the mark at home to Southend United on August 9.