The British number two needed to come through qualifying in order to take his place in the main draw at the ATP250 event in France, but he recovered from a slow start to set up a last-16 clash with Gilles Simon.
Edmund squandered five break-point opportunities during the opening set and his Brazilian opponent took advantage with two breaks of his own to move closer to the second round.
However, Edmund took over in the second set, breaking twice to take the contest into a decider, before he stormed through the third to claim a 2-6 6-4 6-1 win over the world number 95.
Edmund will be meeting Simon for the third time but although both players hold a win apiece, each of their previous two meetings have taken place on grass.
If he defeats Simon, Edmund will be in the world's top 50 ahead of the start of the French Open.